Peter C. Ordeshook & Olga Shvetsova
have undergone recent transitions successfully (
may best illustrate how to get to a federation, but stable democracies best
illustrate what a federation is. Mature democracies such as
make obvious the principles of stable federal relations and the proper design
of the democratic institutions that must be outlined in a nation
's constitution during the transition. Success depends on two
interrelated factors: the structure of elections and the constitutional
weakness of the chief executive.
Ways for the Small Eastern European Nations
Eastern Europe have so far faced modernity
in two opposite, and equally frustrating ways: either
by integrating into a multinational empire, or by striving to constitute
themselves into nation-states in their own rights. Against this background,
federalism could be a third way and, at the same time, the answer for a viable
reconciliation in the region.
Completed Federalism or Confederalism in the Making?
course of one political generation
has evolved from a decentralised unitary state towards a truly federal one.
Nevertheless Belgium may he described neither as a federation, nor as a
confederation. The country is actually less than a federation, yet more than a
confederation and there are to be expected further steps towards more regional
Monoculture to Interculturalism (II)
part of the forum focused on illustrating interculturalism as characteristic of the Banat region in
. The region formerly
comprised an ethnic and religious diversity unique in Europe, but the communist
regime succeeded to wipe' out many of its entities; on the other hand, present
policies do not envisage the preservation of the diversity the region may still
hold, intercultural heritage resting therefore completely with the civil
Prejudice and National Specificity
offers both a many-angled theoretical insight on the sources of ethnical
prejudice (the simplistic, clear-cut logic of we/they is related to archaic,
infant, totalitarian group psychology) and an approach of the different ways
national specificity has been viewed by Romanian intellectuals in this century.
The Hadareni Case
analyzes the collective violence perpetrated on the Roma community of Hadareni in 1993, as well as the discriminatory course the
official investigation took under the pressure of certain political parties in
power at the time. The case has reached court trial only in 1997, after the
democratic changes in Romania brought about by the 1996 political elections,
and its approach in court still needs to be surveyed by the civil society in
order to make sure an undiscriminatory court decision
will be reached.
Law nr. 84
of 1995 (excerpts)
Supplement to the Education Law
Sndor N. Szilgyi
Hungarian Children Learn Romanian at School?
Far from being
unwilling to learn Romanian, Hungarian children in Romania cannot cope with the
handbooks which are designed for native speakers of Romanian, and not for
children to whom Romanian is either a second language (in the regions where the
Hungarian minority lives mixed with the Romanian majority) or a foreign
language (in the regions where Hungarians form compact homogeneous groups). The
handbooks and curricula are not oriented towards the acquisiton of everyday linguistical competence, neither are
teachers prepared to teach Romanian to non-Romanians too.
Aurel C. Popovici and Romanian Federalism
An astute analyse of the Romanian theoreticians endeavours towards a paradigm shift from the national solution to a federal solution. In A. C.Popovicis view, a turn of the century author, the
legitimizing source of such a solution could have been the Habsburg royal
family. The value of this turn-of-the-century theory is becoming salient today,
when the concept of a Central Europe is gaining more and more legitimacy.
Sami Indigenous People of
briefly describes Sami history and culture, and goes on by presenting the
latest positive evolution of the Samisstatus in
evolution which can turn into a real chance for preserving Sami identity.
Aromanians and Their Songs
being almost completely oral, and they themselves usually not being recognized
as a distinct ethnic group by the Balkan states where they live, the Aromanians seem to be doomed to cultural extinction their archaic, unique
songs being just a piece of the cultural treasure that will be lost.
Luke A. Veronis
Words of Peace or Worlds at
Hostility and Reconciliation in
South Eastern Europe
for many of us a fundamental element in our self-identification, it can play an
important role in uniting or dividing people, by proclaiming a message of love
or, on the contrary, by emphasizing differences. The outburst of violence in
Albania was partly due to the misuse of religious teachings which served as a
cover for the war between politicians.
Mitteleuropa, Jacques Le Rider